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RACHIALGIA – Pain in the vertebral column.

RACHICENTESIS – Lumbar puncture for examination of the spinal fluid; rachiocentesis.

RACHIOCAMPSIS – Curvature of the spine.

RACHIOCHYSIS – Effusion of fluid within the vertebral canal.

RACHIOKYPHOSIS – Humpbacked curvature of spine; kyphosis.

RACHIOMYELITIS – Inflammation of the spinal cord.

RACHIOPARALYSIS – Paralysis of the spinal muscles.

RACHIOPATHY – Any disease of the spine.

RACHIOPLEGIA – Spinal paralysis.

RACHIOSCOLIOSIS – Lateral curvature of the spine.

RACHIOTOMY – Incision into a vertebral canal for exploration.

RACHISAGRA – Pain or gout in the spine.

RACHISCHISIS – Abnormal congenital opening of the vertebral column.

RACHITOMY – Surgical or anatomic opening of the vertebral canal.

RADICULECTOMY – Excision of a rootlet or resection of spinal nerve roots.

RADICULOPATHY – Disease of the nerve roots in or near the spinal canal as a result of direct pressure from a disc, or inflammation of the nerve roots due to disc or spinal joint disease.

RADIATION ONCOLOGIST – A medical doctor who has received advanced training in the treatment of persons receiving x-ray treatment for an illness.

RADIATION PHYSICIST – A person having a PhD degree who is trained in the science dealing with the properties, changes and interactions of continuous energy.

RADICLE – A rootlet or structure resembling one, a minute veinlet joining with others to form a vein.

RADICULAR – Relating to the radicle.

RADIOLOGIST – A medical doctor who has received specialized training in interpreting x-rays, CTs, MRIs and performing angiography.

RADIOTHERAPY – Treatment of a lesion with radiation.

RADIUS – The lateral and shorter of the two bones of the foreman.

RECOMBINANT HUMAN PROTEINS proteins developed by isolating a human protein and using recombinant DNA technology to produce genetically engineered proteins that act like natural proteins.

REFERRED PAIN – Sclerotomic in distribution and felt distant from its origin (e.g., bursitis in the shoulder produces pain in the lateral arm, and sciatic-like leg pain can be referred from the lower-back area).

REFLEX – An involuntary reaction in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the nervous centers in the brain or spinal cord.

RESECTION – The surgical removal of part of a structure, such as bone.

RESORPTION – The removal of bone tissue by normal physiological process or as part of a pathological process such as an infection.

RETROLISTHESIS – Posterior displacement of the vertebra on the one below.

REVERSAL of CERVICAL LORDOSIS – Change in the normal curvature of the cervical spine as seen on lateral radiograph. This is usually a straightening of the normal lordotic curve or an actual reversal and is most commonly caused by muscle spasm, indicating cervical disc abnormality.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS – generalized inflammatory joint disease.

RHIZOTOMY – Division of the roots of the spinal nerves.

RISSER – For scoliosis deformity; particular attention to fusion of facet joints and use of cast stabilization.

ROAF, KIRKALDY-WILLIS, and CATTERO – Drainage of thoracic spinal abscess through dorsolateral approach.

ROBINSON and RILEY – An extensive anterior approach for fusion of C-1 to C-3 or lower.

ROD – In spinal applications, a slender, metal implant which is used to immobilize and alien the spine.

ROGER FUSION – Posterior cervical using iliac cortical and cancellous grafts.

ROGOZINSKI – A combined anteroposterior device used in correction of spinal deformities.

ROOT – The primary or beginning point of any part, as of a nerve at its origin from the brainstem or spinal cord.

ROOT SLEEVE FIBROSIS – Scar tissue surrounding a nerve in the spinal canal or neural foramen; epineural fibrosis. If it is within the nerve, it is called intraneural fibrosis.

ROUNDIND of the CRANIAL BORDER – Relationship of the height to the width of the rounded portion of the superior sacrum.

ROY-CAMILLE – For stabilization between the skull and C-2; posterior bone graft with wire and parallel vertical screw plate fixation from occiput to C-3. Posterior pedicle screw and plate device for spinal stabilization.

RUDIMENTARY RIBS – Nubbins of ribs seen below the level where the last rib normally occurs.

RUPTURED DISC – See Herniated Disc.

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